Universal system and output transformer for valve amplifiers

118th AES Convention 2005, Barcelona; paper 6347. Vacuum tube amplifiers have many different topologies like single ended (SE), or push pull
(PP), or paralleled push pull (PPP) or cathode follower (CF). These topologies and all their variations are placed into one general system. This gives clear insight into the coupling between vacuum tubes and the output transformer, which functions as an impedance converter between the high impedance vacuum tubes and the low impedance loudspeaker.
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